Nowadays there is unpredictable change in climate and environment. Construction sector is the major contributor to such climate changes. Carbon which is the crucial element responsible for the changes in climate is mostly generated by construction industry. Affected by the struggles due to drastic climate and environment, government and people are more concerned about the development with greener concepts. Necessity of eco-friendly construction is being promoted in all fields of industry. As 70% of the construction industry deals with residential projects, architects and engineers are trying to encourage eco- friendly construction by designing and constructing eco-friendly villas and apartments.
There are several ways to make the construction of buildings eco friendly. One of the effective methods is to use eco-friendly materials for construction which increases the energy efficiency and reduces the impact on climate and environment. A new way of constructing the walls using interlocking mud bricks is getting popularized as an alternate to the current usage of solid concrete blocks. The mud bricks are eco-friendly materials and they generate lesser heat compared to solid concrete blocks which in turn increases the energy efficiency of buildings. Plastering is not necessary for interlocking mud brick wall due to its good finish and thus there is considerable saving in cost. (See the image below)
Now people prefer the traditional clay tile roof instead of concrete roof to avoid the adverse effect of heated concrete slab during summer season. Clay tile is an eco-friendly material and it can be fixed upon wooden frame work which is also an eco-friendly system.(See the image below)
As an eco-friendly material, bamboos are widely used for making huts and traditional rest houses especially in tourist resorts.(See the image below)
The construction works using recycled materials will reduce the impact to the environment. For example, the use of reclaimed wood can save the trees surviving in the environment and is one of the purest forms of recycling in construction industry. Reclaimed wood is wood that is taken out from an old building during its demolition without making damages to the wood. Reclaimed wood structures have many advantages when compared to new wood structures. If the existing shape of the wood structure is acceptable for new building, the effort gets reduced to just transportation, saving labour and cost. For instance, the windows and doors taken out from an old building can be used as such for new building if new requirements match with the old ones. (See the image below)
Now researches are going on to use recycled aggregates for construction as the major takeout from the environment by construction industry is aggregates (both fine and coarse aggregates) which is making a huge impact to the environment and human beings.
Besides the use of eco-friendly materials for construction, buildings can be constructed eco-friendly by its design itself. A design which makes use of the natural resources like sunlight and wind will reduce the energy consumption of the building. If windows are given in sufficient numbers without affecting the safety of the building, the building will be graced with natural light and wind which in turn cut down the usage of electric lights and fans. The installation of energy efficient equipments can also make the building eco-friendly. The use of energy efficient electrical appliances, water efficient kitchen equipments and toilet components and the system to recycle the waste water for gardening etc. can make a building and its surroundings eco-friendly.